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country; and our fear of the expansion of Russia is
considerably increased if Russia implies either a Tsarist
despotism or the Communist system. All the same, it
is wrong to overlook that original diplomatic predica-
ment which forms the kernel of die problem requiring
to be solved; and it is a mistake to allow the incidental
matters or the attendant circumstances to drive that
essential issue out of our minds. I could express the
point, for example—or I could illustrate its implications

__by noting that we should not like to be conquered by

Russia even if Russia were not a Communist State.
Alternatively I might say that supposing it coulcf be
made out that there were general reasons for conceding
that Spain had a right to Gibraltar, it is not clear that
the British would be justified in withholding that pos-
session merely because they disliked the present regime
in Spain and disapproved of General Franco. It was
perhaps one of the virtues of the older type of diplomacy
that in time of war it did not allow itself to be entirely
obsessed by the question of the responsibility for the
resort to violence—did not merely hark back continually
to. the actual occasion of the outbreak-^-but recognised
that the war itself was partly tragedy, that is to say,
, partly due to a predicament. Attention was concen-
trated rather on the kind of world which would be
produced once the victory had been achieved,* and the
aim was not so much to punish the culprits, but rather
to make sure that there was a tolerable balance offerees
at the finish. In times past it would have been realised
that the most essential- thing of all is to guard against
the kind of war which, if you win it absolutely, will